Learning a new language is arguably the best way to broaden your horizons if you are looking at any kind of job dealing with public service or global politics. Interpersonal relationships between countries and governments are greatly improved when people are able to communicate clearly, and if you learn a language that is rarely spoken or known, you make yourself invaluable to your employer. However, learning a language can be difficult because it can be hard to keep track of all the rules that different languages follow in their grammar, especially when it comes to English grammar.
English is considered one of the most notorious languages for keeping track of which rules are common and which rules are broken often. People who learn American English as a second or even third language struggle to remember spellings, verb tenses, singular and plural subject/verb agreements, and several other common grammar mistakes.
In this article, let’s explore the infinitive verb shine, learn its proper use, how to use its past tense, look for its synonyms, and learn its etymology and context.
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To first understand a word, its history, and how to use it properly, it is important to first define what it actually means. According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, the word shine can be defined as “to emit rays of light,” “to be bright by reflection of light,” or “to throw or direct the light of.” Overall, there are nine definitions of the English verb “to shine” that are commonly accepted in both the transitive and intransitive forms.
Part of what makes English such a difficult language to master is that no matter where you look, there are rules, and then there are exceptions to those past tense forms. For example, the common rule for conjugation of the past tense in English is to add “-d” or “-ed” to a verb to give it the past tense. For example, the verb cook becomes cooked, and the verb bake becomes baked. In both situations, you either add the “-ed” or the “-d” suffix, and the word is past tense. However, this often becomes more complicated with irregular verbs. It’s complicated even further by the fact that shine can be both a transitive verb and an intransitive verb. The past tense of “to shine” has two separate forms and both are considered correct.
The first way to create the simple past tense of shine is by adding a “-d” suffix, and the second is by changing the spelling from shine to shone. While both are correct, the more commonly accepted in normal conversation is the word shined. Shone is usually reserved for more “proper” communication and is also more commonly used in British English. The past participle is generally shone.
The present participle is shining, as in “I am shining.”
What Does Shine Mean?
Shine as a verb (rather than a noun) just conveys this idea of emitting brightness. If the sun is shining, it is throwing off bright light everywhere it is visible. If a surface shines, it is clean and bright and reflects the light of the things around it. However, it is not just a verb. In some contexts, it can also take the form of a noun or even an adjective, depending on how it is used.
The History and Origin of the Word
One of the best ways to understand a word is to learn where it came from. A word’s etymology can reveal a lot about the changes a word has gone through to get to where it is today in modern English. According to EtymOnline.com, the word shine comes from the Old English word “scinan,” which means “to shed light, be radiant, be resplendent, illuminate.” It comes from the Proto-Germanic “skeinanan,” which has roots in Old Norse and Old Frisian.
Unlike much of the modern English language, which has its roots in ancient Latin and Greek, a lot of verbs with irregular forms actually have roots in older western European languages such as Old English, Proto-Germanic, and Norse.
Examples of the Word in Context
Another great way to learn how to use a word is to explore the word being used correctly. Either reading the word in its proper context or hearing someone else use it in conversation. Here are some common examples of the word “to shine” (and its past tense) in common context:
“Out of the darkness, the sun shone even brighter than the day before.”
“When you finish washing the silverware, I want it to shine. I should be able to see my face on every inch of it.”
“The brightness of the music makes the tone shine out into the New York concert hall. Nothing conveys the level of emotion that music like that does.”
Synonyms for Shine
Finally, to really solidify a word into your vocabulary, it is useful to explore words in the thesaurus with similar or same definitions. The more words you know that can fit into a specific context, the easier it will be to remember which ones to use. Here are some synonyms for the verb “to shine”:
To beam is to shine with intensity in a very specific direction or for a specific reason
To glimmer is to shine with a flickering radiance
To glow is to shine with an internal and ambient radiance
At the end of the day, nothing matters more than your audience. When trying to figure out what form of a word to use, remember that language is driven by culture. What is considered the correct form of a word in one context or to one group of people may not be considered correct to another group. Before you decide to communicate either with spoken or written words, learn to read your audience and the context you are communicating in.
By doing this, you will narrow down your vocabulary to whatever they need to hear, and you will be more effective.
By reaching the end of this article, you should be prepared to use the word “shine” and its past tenses in any context. Best of luck!
Kevin Miller is a growth marketer with an extensive background in Search Engine Optimization, paid acquisition and email marketing. He is also an online editor and writer based out of Los Angeles, CA. He studied at Georgetown University, worked at Google and became infatuated with English Grammar and for years has been diving into the language, demystifying the do's and don'ts for all who share the same passion! He can be found online here.